Computer Networks Questions- 1 to test your basics!

What is MAC address?
The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique.

What is cladding?
A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable.

How Gateway is different from Routers?
A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different network architectures or data formats

What is passive topology?
When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they don’t amplify the signal in any way. Example for passive topology - linear bus.

What is SAP?
Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack.

What is subnet?
A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router.

What is IP?
IP is Internet Protocol. It is the network protocol which is used to send information from one computer to another over the network over the internet in the form of packets

What’s the meaning of ARP in TCP/IP?
The “ARP” stands for Address Resolution Protocol. The ARP standard defines two basic message types: a request and a response. a request message contains an IP address and requests the corresponding hardware address; a replay contains both the IP address, sent in the request, and the hardware address.

What is data link layer in the OSI reference model responsible for?
Data link layer is located above the physical layer, but below the network layer. Taking raw data bits and packaging them into frames. The network layer will be responsible for addressing the frames, while the physical layer is reponsible for retrieving and sending raw data bits.

What is binding order?
The order by which the network protocols are used for client-server communications. The most frequently used protocols should be at the top.

How do cryptography-based keys ensure the validity of data transferred across the network?
Each IP packet is assigned a checksum, so if the checksums do not match on both receiving and transmitting ends, the data was modified or corrupted.

What is UTP?
UTP — Unshielded twisted pair 10BASE-T is the preferred Ethernet medium of the 90s. It is based on a star topology and provides a number of advantages over coaxial media.
It uses inexpensive, readily available copper phone wire. UTP wire is much easier to install and debug than coax. UTP uses RG-45 connectors, which are cheap and reliable.

What is a router? What is a gateway?
Routers are machines that direct a packet through the maze of networks that stand between its source and destination. Normally a router is used for internal networks while a gateway acts a door for the packet to reach the ‘outside’ of the internal network

What is Semaphore? What is deadlock?
Semaphore is a synchronization tool to solve critical-section problem, can be used to control access to the critical section for a process or thread. The main disadvantage (same of mutual-exclusion) is require busy waiting. It will create problems in a multiprogramming system, where a single CPU is shared among many processes.
Busy waiting wastes CPU cycles.
Deadlock is a situation when two or more processes are waiting indefinitely for an event that can be caused by only one of the waiting processes. The implementation of a semaphore with a waiting queue may result in this situation

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