Basic Networking Questions - 1
What is source-route bridging algorithm ?
The source-route bridging (SRB) algorithm was developed by IBM and was proposed to the IEEE 802.5 committee as the means to bridge between all LANs. SRBs are so named because they assume that the complete source-to-destination route is placed in all inter-LAN frames sent by the source. SRBs store and forward the frames as indicated by the route appearing in the appropriate frame field. Assume that Host X wants to send a frame to Host Y. Initially, Host X does not know whether Host Y resides on the same LAN or a different LAN. To determine this, Host X sends out a test frame. If that frame returns to Host X without a positive indication that Host Y has seen it, Host X assumes that Host Y is on a remote segment. To determine the exact remote location of Host Y, Host X sends an explorer frame. Each bridge receiving the explorer frame copies the frame onto all outbound ports. Route information is added to the explorer frames as they travel through the internetwork. When Host X's explorer frames reach Host Y, Host Y replies to each individually, using the accumulated route information. Upon receipt of all response frames, Host X chooses a path based on some predetermined criteria. Host X must select one of these two routes. The IEEE 802.5 specification does not mandate the criteria that Host X should use in choosing a route, but it does make several suggestions, including the following:
•First frame received
•Response with the minimum number of hops
•Response with the largest allowed frame size
•Various combinations of the preceding criteria
In most cases, the path contained in the first frame received is used.
What is Transparent Bridge ?
Transparent bridges were first developed at Digital Equipment Corporation (Digital) in
the early 1980s. Transparent bridges are so named because their presence and operation are transparent to network hosts. When transparent bridges are powered on, they learn the workstation locations by analyzing the source address of incoming frames from all attached networks. For example, if a bridge sees a frame arrive on port 1 from Host A, the bridge concludes that Host A can be reached through the segment connected to port 1. Through this process, transparent bridges build a table. The bridge uses its table as the basis for traffic forwarding. When a frame is received on one of the bridge's interfaces, the bridge looks up the frame's destination address in its internal table. If the table contains an association between the destination address and any of the bridge's ports aside from the one on which the frame was received, the frame is forwarded out the indicated port. If no association is found, the frame is flooded to all ports except the inbound port. Broadcasts and multicasts also are flooded in this way. Transparent bridges successfully isolate intrasegment traffic, thereby reducing the traffic seen on each individual segment. This is called filtering and occurs when the source and destination MAC addresses reside on the same bridge interface. Filtering usually improves network response times, as seen by the user. The extent to which traffic is reduced and response times are improved depends on the volume of intersegment traffic relative to the total traffic, as well as the volume of broadcast and multicast traffic.
What is the basic difference between transparent bridges and source-route bridges relative to the forwarding processes ?
In a transparent bridged environment, bridges determine whether a frame needs to be forwarded, and through what path based upon local bridge tables. In an SRB network, the source device prescribes the route to the destination and indicates the desired path in the RIF.
What is Switched Multimegabit Data Service ?
Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) is a high-speed, packet-switched, datagram-based WAN networking technology used for communication over public data networks (PDNs). SMDS can use fiber- or copper-based media. SMDS networks consist of several underlying devices to provide high-speed data service. These include customer premises equipment (CPE), carrier equipment, and the subscriber network interface (SNI). CPE is terminal equipment typically owned and maintained by the customer. CPE includes end devices, such as terminals and personal computers, and intermediate nodes, such as routers, modems, and multiplexers. Intermediate nodes, however, sometimes are provided by the SMDS carrier. Carrier equipment generally consists of high-speed WAN switches that must conform to certain network equipment specifications. These specifications define network operations, the interface between a local carrier network and a long-distance carrier network, and the interface between two switches inside a single carrier network.
Where is SMDS Interface Protocol used ?
The SMDS Interface Protocol (SIP) is used for communications between CPE (Customer premises equipment) and SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) carrier equipment. SIP provides connectionless service across the subscriber network interface (SNI), allowing the CPE to access the SMDS network.
What is Data-Link Switching ?
Data-link switching (DLSw) provides a means of transporting IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and network basic input/output system (NetBIOS) traffic over an IP network. It serves as an alternative to source-route bridging (SRB), a protocol for transporting SNA and NetBIOS traffic in Token Ring environments that was widely deployed before the introduction of DLSw. In general, DLSw addresses some of the shortcomings of SRB for certain communication requirements—particularly in WAN implementations. This chapter contrasts DLSw with SRB, summarizes underlying protocols, and provides a synopsis of normal protocol operations. The three primary functions of DLSw are :
•The Switch-to-Switch Protocol (SSP) is the protocol maintained between two DLSw nodes or routers.
•The termination of SNA data-link control (DLC) connections helps to reduce the likelihood of link layer timeouts across WANs.
•The local mapping of DLC connections to a DLSw circuit.
What is Banyan VINES ?
Banyan Virtual Integrated Network Service (VINES) implements a distributed network operating system based on a proprietary protocol family derived from the Xerox Corporation's Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocols. VINES uses a client/server architecture in which clients request certain services, such as file and printer access, from servers.
What is Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol ?
The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) represents an evolution from its predecessor IGRP. This evolution resulted from changes in networking and the demands of diverse, large-scale internetworks. EIGRP integrates the capabilities of link-state protocols into distance vector protocols. Additionally, EIGRP contains several important protocols that greatly increase its operational efficiency relative to other routing protocols. One of these protocols is the Diffusing update algorithm (DUAL). DUAL enables EIGRP routers to determine whether a path advertised by a neighbor is looped or loop-free, and allows a router running EIGRP to find alternate paths without waiting on updates from other routers. EIGRP provides compatibility and seamless interoperation with IGRP routers. An automatic-redistribution mechanism allows IGRP routes to be imported into EIGRP, and vice versa, so it is possible to add EIGRP gradually into an existing IGRP network. Because the metrics for both protocols are directly translatable, they are as easily comparable as if they were routes that originated in their own autonomous systems (ASs). In addition, EIGRP treats IGRP routes as external routes and provides a way for the network administrator to customize them.
Name the four key technologies that are used by EIGRP ?
EIGRP employs four key technologies, including neighbor discover/recovery, Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP), Diffusing Update ALgorithm (DUAL) finite-state machine, and a modular architecture that enables support for new protocols to be easily added to an existing network.
Why EIGRP is more efficient in operation than IGRP ?
Unlike most other distance vector routing protocols, EIGRP does not mandate a periodic update of routing tables between neighboring routers. Instead, it employs a neighbor discovery/recovery mechanism to ensure that neighbors remain aware of each other's accessibility. As long as a router receives periodic hello packets from its neighbors, it can assume that those neighbors remain functional. More importantly, it can assume that all of its routes that rely upon passage through those neighbors remain usable. Thus, EIGRP is much more efficient than conventional distance vector routing protocols because it imposes much less overhead on routers and transmission facilities during normal operation.
What is Interior Gateway Protocol ?
IGRP is a distance vector Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Distance vector routing protocols mathematically compare routes using some measurement of distance. This measurement is known as the distance vector. Routers using a distance vector protocol must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing-update message at regular intervals to each of their neighboring routers. As routing information proliferates through the network, routers can identify new destinations as they are added to the network, learn of failures in the network, and, most importantly, calculate distances to all known destinations.
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