Frequently asked C++ Interview Questions and Answers -5

What is the difference between char a[] = “string”; and char *p = “string”;?

In the first case 6 bytes are allocated to the variable a which is fixed, where as in the second case if *p is assigned to some other value the allocate memory can change.

What’s the auto keyword good for?

Not much. It declares an object with automatic storage duration. Which means the object will be destroyed at the end of the objects scope. All variables in functions that are not declared as static and not dynamically allocated have automatic storage duration by default.

For example
int main()
int a; //this is the same as writing “auto int a;”

Local variables occur within a scope; they are “local” to a function. They are often called automatic variables because they automatically come into being when the scope is entered and automatically go away when the scope closes. The keyword auto makes this explicit, but local variables default to auto auto auto auto so it is never necessary to declare something as an auto auto auto auto.

What is the difference between char a[] = “string”; and char *p = “string”; ?

a[] = “string”;
char *p = “string”;

The difference is this:
p is pointing to a constant string, you can never safely say
however you can always say a[3]=’x';

char a[]=”string”; - character array initialization.
char *p=”string” ; - non-const pointer to a const-string.( this is permitted only in the case of char pointer in C++ to preserve backward compatibility with C.)

a[] = “string”;
char *p = “string”;

a[] will have 7 bytes. However, p is only 4 bytes. P is pointing to an adress is either BSS or the data section (depending on which compiler — GNU for the former and CC for the latter).

char a[] = “string”;
char *p = “string”;

for char a[]…….using the array notation 7 bytes of storage in the static memory block are taken up, one for each character and one for the terminating nul character.

But, in the pointer notation char *p………….the same 7 bytes required, plus N bytes to store the pointer variable “p” (where N depends on the system but is usually a minimum of 2 bytes and can be 4 or more)……

How do I declare an array of N pointers to functions returning pointers to functions returning pointers to characters?

If you want the code to be even slightly readable, you will use typedefs.
typedef char* (*functiontype_one)(void);
typedef functiontype_one (*functiontype_two)(void);
functiontype_two myarray[N]; //assuming N is a const integral

char* (* (*a[N])())()
Here a is that array. And according to question no function will not take any parameter value.

What does extern mean in a function declaration?

It tells the compiler that a variable or a function exists, even if the compiler hasn’t yet seen it in the file currently being compiled. This variable or function may be defined in another file or further down in the current file.

How do I initialize a pointer to a function?

This is the way to initialize a pointer to a function
void fun(int a)


void main()
void (*fp)(int);


How do you link a C++ program to C functions?

By using the extern "C" linkage specification around the C function declarations.

Explain the scope resolution operator.

It permits a program to reference an identifier in the global scope that has been hidden by another identifier with the same name in the local scope.

What are the differences between a C++ struct and C++ class?

The default member and base-class access specifiers are different.

How many ways are there to initialize an int with a constant?

There are two formats for initializers in C++ as shown in the example that follows. The first format uses the traditional C notation. The second format uses constructor notation.
int foo = 123;
int bar (123)

How does throwing and catching exceptions differ from using setjmp and longjmp?

The throw operation calls the destructors for automatic objects instantiated since entry to the try block.

What is a default constructor?

Default constructor WITH arguments class B { public: B (int m = 0) : n (m) {} int n; }; int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { B b; return 0; }

What is a conversion constructor?

A constructor that accepts one argument of a different type.

What is the difference between a copy constructor and an overloaded assignment operator?

A copy constructor constructs a new object by using the content of the argument object. An overloaded assignment operator assigns the contents of an existing object to another existing object of the same class.

When should you use multiple inheritance?

There are three acceptable answers: "Never," "Rarely," and "When the problem domain cannot be accurately modeled any other way."

Explain the ISA and HASA class relationships. How would you implement each in a class design?

A specialized class "is" a specialization of another class and, therefore, has the ISA relationship with the other class. An Employee ISA Person. This relationship is best implemented with inheritance. Employee is derived from Person. A class may have an instance of another class. For example, an employee "has" a salary, therefore the Employee class has the HASA relationship with the Salary class. This relationship is best implemented by embedding an object of the Salary class in the Employee class.

When is a template a better solution than a base class?

When you are designing a generic class to contain or otherwise manage objects of other types, when the format and behavior of those other types are unimportant to their containment or management, and particularly when those other types are unknown (thus, the genericity) to the designer of the container or manager class.

What is a mutable member?

One that can be modified by the class even when the object of the class or the member function doing the modification is const.

What is an explicit constructor?

A conversion constructor declared with the explicit keyword. The compiler does not use an explicit constructor to implement an implied conversion of types. It’s purpose is reserved explicitly for construction.

What is the Standard Template Library (STL)?

A library of container templates approved by the ANSI committee for inclusion in the standard C++ specification.
A programmer who then launches into a discussion of the generic programming model, iterators, allocators, algorithms, and such, has a higher than average understanding of the new technology that STL brings to C++ programming.

courtesy:DEVFYI - Developer Resource - FYI

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