What are advantages and disadvantages of external storage class?
Advantages of external storage class
1)Persistent storage of a variable retains the latest value
2)The value is globally available
Disadvantages of external storage class
1)The storage for an external variable exists even when the variable is not needed
2)The side effect may produce surprising output
3)Modification of the program is difficult
4)Generality of a program is affected
What is a void pointer?
A void pointer is a C convention for a raw address. The compiler has no idea what type of object a void Pointer really points to. If you write
ip points to an int. If you write
p doesn’t point to a void!
In C and C++, any time you need a void pointer, you can use another pointer type. For example, if you have a char*, you can pass it to a function that expects a void*. You don’t even need to cast it. In C (but not in C++), you can use a void* any time you need any kind of pointer, without casting. (In C++, you need to cast it).
A void pointer is used for working with raw memory or for passing a pointer to an unspecified type.
Some C code operates on raw memory. When C was first invented, character pointers (char *) were used for that. Then people started getting confused about when a character pointer was a string, when it was a character array, and when it was raw memory.
How can type-insensitive macros be created?
A type-insensitive macro is a macro that performs the same basic operation on different data types.
This task can be accomplished by using the concatenation operator to create a call to a type-sensitive function based on the parameter passed to the macro. The following program provides an example:
#define SORT(data_type) sort_ ## data_type
void sort_int(int** i);
void sort_long(long** l);
void sort_float(float** f);
void sort_string(char** s);
This program contains four functions to sort four different data types: int, long, float, and string (notice that only the function prototypes are included for brevity). A macro named SORT was created to take the data type passed to the macro and combine it with the sort_ string to form a valid function call that is appropriate for the data type being sorted. Thus, the string
after being run through the preprocessor.
When should a type cast not be used?
A type cast should not be used to override a const or volatile declaration. Overriding these type modifiers can cause the program to fail to run correctly.
A type cast should not be used to turn a pointer to one type of structure or data type into another. In the rare events in which this action is beneficial, using a union to hold the values makes the programmer’s intentions clearer.
When is a switch statement better than multiple if statements?
A switch statement is generally best to use when you have more than two conditional expressions based on a single variable of numeric type.
What is storage class and what are storage variable ?
A storage class is an attribute that changes the behavior of a variable. It controls the lifetime, scope and linkage.
There are five types of storage classes
What is a static function?
A static function is a function whose scope is limited to the current source file. Scope refers to the visibility of a function or variable. If the function or variable is visible outside of the current source file, it is said to have global, or external, scope. If the function or variable is not visible outside of the current source file, it is said to have local, or static, scope.
How can I sort things that are too large to bring into memory?
A sorting program that sorts items that are on secondary storage (disk or tape) rather than primary storage (memory) is called an external sort. Exactly how to sort large data depends on what is meant by too large to fit in memory. If the items to be sorted are themselves too large to fit in memory (such as images), but there aren’t many items, you can keep in memory only the sort key and a value indicating the data’s location on disk. After the key/value pairs are sorted, the data is rearranged on disk into the correct order. If too large to fit in memory means that there are too many items to fit into memory at one time, the data can be sorted in groups that will fit into memory, and then the resulting files can be merged. A sort such as a radix sort can also be used as an external sort, by making each bucket in the sort a file. Even the quick sort can be an external sort. The data can be partitioned by writing it to two smaller files. When the partitions are small enough to fit, they are sorted in memory and concatenated to form the sorted file.
What is a pointer variable?
A pointer variable is a variable that may contain the address of another variable or any valid address in the memory.
What is a pointer value and address?
A pointer value is a data object that refers to a memory location. Each memory locaion is numbered in the memory. The number attached to a memory location is called the address of the location.
What is a modulus operator? What are the restrictions of a modulus operator?
A Modulus operator gives the remainder value. The result of x%y is obtained by (x-(x/y)*y). This operator is applied only to integral operands and cannot be applied to float or double.
What is a macro, and how do you use it?
A macro is a preprocessor directive that provides a mechanism for token replacement in your source code. Macros are created by using the #define statement.
Here is an example of a macro: Macros can also utilize special operators such as the stringizing operator (#) and the concatenation operator (##).The stringizing operator can be used to convert macro parameters to quoted strings, as in the following example:
#define DEBUG_VALUE(v) printf(#v is equal to %d.n, v)
In your program, you can check the value of a variable by invoking the DEBUG_VALUE macro:
int x = 20;
The preceding code prints x is equal to 20. on-screen. This example shows that the stringizing operator used with macros can be a very handy debugging tool.
Differentiate between a linker and linkage?
A linker converts an object code into an executable code by linking together the necessary build in functions. The form and place of declaration where the variable is declared in a program determine the linkage of variable.
What is a function and built-in function?
A large program is subdivided into a number of smaller programs or subprograms. Each subprogram specifies one or more actions to be performed for a large program.such subprograms are functions.
The function supports only static and extern storage classes.By default, function assumes extern storage class.functions have global scope. Only register or auto storage class is allowed in the function parameters. Built-in functions that predefined and supplied along with the compiler are known as built-in functions.They are also known as library functions.
What is the difference between goto and longjmp() and setjmp()?
A goto statement implements a local jump of program execution, and the longjmp() and setjmp() functions implement a nonlocal, or far, jump of program execution.
Generally, a jump in execution of any kind should be avoided because it is not considered good programming practice to use such statements as goto and longjmp in your program.
A goto statement simply bypasses code in your program and jumps to a predefined position. To use the goto statement, you give it a labeled position to jump to. This predefined position must be within the same function. You cannot implement gotos between functions.
When your program calls setjmp(), the current state of your program is saved in a structure of type jmp_buf. Later, your program can call the longjmp() function to restore the program’s state as it was when you called setjmp().Unlike the goto statement, the longjmp() and setjmp() functions do not need to be implemented in the same function.
However, there is a major drawback to using these functions: your program, when restored to its previously saved state, will lose its references to any dynamically allocated memory between the longjmp() and the setjmp(). This means you will waste memory for every malloc() or calloc() you have implemented between your longjmp() and setjmp(), and your program will be horribly inefficient. It is highly recommended that you avoid using functions such as longjmp() and setjmp() because they, like the goto statement, are quite often an indication of poor programming practice.
s it acceptable to declare/define a variable in a C header?
A global variable that must be accessed from more than one file can and should be declared in a header file. In addition, such a variable must be defined in one source file.
Variables should not be defined in header files, because the header file can be included in multiple source files, which would cause multiple definitions of the variable. The ANSI C standard will allow multiple external definitions, provided that there is only one initialization. But because there’s really no advantage to using this feature, it’s probably best to avoid it and maintain a higher level of portability.
Global variables that do not have to be accessed from more than one file should be declared static and should not appear in a header file.
Why should I prototype a function?
A function prototype tells the compiler what kind of arguments a function is looking to receive and what kind of return value a function is going to give back. This approach helps the compiler ensure that calls to a function are made correctly and that no erroneous type conversions are taking place.
What is the quickest searching method to use?
A binary search, such as bsearch() performs, is much faster than a linear search. A hashing algorithm can provide even faster searching. One particularly interesting and fast method for searching is to keep the data in a digital trie. A digital trie offers the prospect of being able to search for an item in essentially a constant amount of time, independent of how many items are in the data set.
A digital trie combines aspects of binary searching, radix searching, and hashing. The term digital trie refers to the data structure used to hold the items to be searched. It is a multilevel data structure that branches N ways at each level.
What are the advantages of auto variables?
1)The same auto variable name can be used in different blocks
2)There is no side effect by changing the values in the blocks
3)The memory is economically used
4)Auto variables have inherent protection because of local scope
What are the characteristics of arrays in C?
1) An array holds elements that have the same data type
2) Array elements are stored in subsequent memory locations
3) Two-dimentional array elements are stored row by row in subsequent memory locations.
4) Array name represents the address of the starting element
5) Array size should be mentioned in the declaration. Array size must be a constant expression and not a variable.
How do you print only part of a string?
/* Use printf() to print the first 11 characters of source_str. */
printf(First 11 characters: ‘%11.11s’n, source_str);
In C, what is the difference between a static variable and global variable?
A static variable declared outside of any function is accessible only to all the functions defined in the same file (as the static variable). However, a global variable can be accessed by any function (including the ones from different files).
In C, why is the void pointer useful?
When would you use it? The void pointer is useful becuase it is a generic pointer that any pointer can be cast into and back again without loss of information.
courtesy:DEVFYI - Developer Resource - FYI