Basic C Questions to test ur expertise-1

What is C language?


The C programming language is a standardized programming language developed in the early 1970s by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie for use on the UNIX operating system. It has since spread to many other operating systems, and is one of the most widely used programming languages. C is prized for its efficiency, and is the most popular programming language for writing system software, though it is also used for writing applications. ...


printf() Function
What is the output of printf("%d")?

1. When we write printf("%d",x); this means compiler will print the value of x. But as here, there is nothing after �%d� so compiler will show in output window gurbage value.

2. When we use %d the compiler internally uses it to access the argument in the stack (argument stack). Ideally compiler determines the offset of the data variable depending on the format specification string. Now when we write printf("%d",a) then compiler first accesses the top most element in the argument stack of the printf which is %d and depending on the format string it calculated to offset to the actual data variable in the memory which is to be printed. Now when only %d will be present in the printf then compiler will calculte the correct offset (which will be the offset to access the integer varible) but as the actual data objet is to be printed is not present at that memory location so it will print what ever will be the contents of that memory location.

3. Some compilers check the format string and will generate an error without the proper number and type of arguments for things like printf(...) and scanf(...).


malloc() Function- What is the difference between "calloc(...)" and "malloc(...)"?

1. calloc(...) allocates a block of memory for an array of elements of a certain size. By default the block is initialized to 0. The total number of memory allocated will be (number_of_elements * size).

malloc(...) takes in only a single argument which is the memory required in bytes. malloc(...) allocated bytes of memory and not blocks of memory like calloc(...).

2. malloc(...) allocates memory blocks and returns a void pointer to the allocated space, or NULL if there is insufficient memory available.

calloc(...) allocates an array in memory with elements initialized to 0 and returns a pointer to the allocated space. calloc(...) calls malloc(...) in order to use the C++ _set_new_mode function to set the new handler mode.


printf() Function- What is the difference between "printf(...)" and "sprintf(...)"?

sprintf(...) writes data to the charecter array whereas printf(...) writes data to the standard output device.


Compilation How to reduce a final size of executable?

Size of the final execuatable can be reduced using dynamic linking for libraries.


Linked Lists -- Can you tell me how to check whether a linked list is circular?

Create two pointers, and set both to the start of the list. Update each as follows:
while (pointer1) {
pointer1 = pointer1->next;
pointer2 = pointer2->next;
if (pointer2) pointer2=pointer2->next;
if (pointer1 == pointer2) {
print ("circularn");
}
}

If a list is circular, at some point pointer2 will wrap around and be either at the item just before pointer1, or the item before that. Either way, it’s either 1 or 2 jumps until they meet.


"union" Data Type What’s the output of the following program? Why?

#include 
main() {
typedef union {
int a;
char b[10];
float c;
}
Union;

Union x,y = {100};
x.a = 50;
strcpy(x.b,"hello");
x.c = 21.50;
printf("Union x : %d %s %f n",x.a,x.b,x.c);
printf("Union y : %d %s %f n",y.a,y.b,y.c);
}

String Processing --- Write out a function that prints out all the permutations of a string. For example, abc would give you abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba.

void PrintPermu (char *sBegin, char* sRest) {
int iLoop;
char cTmp;
char cFLetter[1];
char *sNewBegin;
char *sCur;
int iLen;
static int iCount;

iLen = strlen(sRest);
if (iLen == 2) {
iCount++;
printf("%d: %s%s\n",iCount,sBegin,sRest);
iCount++;
printf("%d: %s%c%c\n",iCount,sBegin,sRest[1],sRest[0]);
return;
} else if (iLen == 1) {
iCount++;
printf("%d: %s%s\n", iCount, sBegin, sRest);
return;
} else {
// swap the first character of sRest with each of
// the remaining chars recursively call debug print
sCur = (char*)malloc(iLen);
sNewBegin = (char*)malloc(iLen);
for (iLoop = 0; iLoop < iLen; iLoop ++) {
strcpy(sCur, sRest);
strcpy(sNewBegin, sBegin);
cTmp = sCur[iLoop];
sCur[iLoop] = sCur[0];
sCur[0] = cTmp;
sprintf(cFLetter, "%c", sCur[0]);
strcat(sNewBegin, cFLetter);
debugprint(sNewBegin, sCur+1);
}
}
}

void main() {
char s[255];
char sIn[255];
printf("\nEnter a string:");
scanf("%s%*c",sIn);
memset(s,0,255);
PrintPermu(s, sIn);
}


courtesy:
DEVFYI - Developer Resource - FYI

3 comments:

  1. it is very helpfull...........

    ReplyDelete
  2. it is really a helpful report

    ReplyDelete
  3. thank you buddy.....

    ReplyDelete